WHAT IS COUNTER SPACE? Counter space is the space in which subtle forces work, such as those of life, which are not amenable to ordinary measurement. It is the polar opposite of Euclidean space. It was discovered by the observations of Rudolf Steiner and described geometrically by George Adams and, independently, by Louis Locher-Ernst. Instead of having its ideal elements in a plane at infinity it has them in a "POINT at infinity". They are lines and planes, rather than lines and points as in ordinary space. We call this point the counter space infinity, so that a plane incident with it is said to be an ideal plane or plane at infinity in counter space. It only appears thus for a different kind of consciousness, namely a peripheral one which experiences such a point as an infinite inwardness in contrast to our normal consciousness which experiences an infinite outwardness. Nick Thomas has explored the idea that objects existing in both spaces at once are subject to strain and stress, and an analysis of these leads to new approaches to gravity and other forces as summarised in the diagram below. The pentagons are 'hot spots' to explore further. LINKAGES A linkage is an element that belongs to both Euclidean- and counter-space at once e.g. a point or plane. Suppose a cube is linked to both spaces at once, and is moved upwards away from the inner infinitude. It will try to obey the metrics of both spaces, and the diagram below shows what happens as it moves, the yellow version obeying space and staying the same size and shape in space, while the magenta version obeys the counter space metric. The counter space- or inner-infinity is shown as a point at the bottom, and lines have been drawn from it through the vertices of the cube. The counter-spatial movement is such that the vertices stay on these lines in order to obey its metric properties, as illustrated by the magenta cube, while the spatial one stays the same spatially. With our ordinary consciousness that is what seems natural, of course, but for a counter space consciousness the other is most natural and the yellow cube appears to be getting bigger (NOT smaller!!). The geometric difference between the two cubes is referred to as strain, analogously to the use of that term in engineering where it is the percentage deformation in size when, for example, an elastic band is stretched. The elastic band responds to the strain by exerting a force, which is referred to as stress. The central thesis here is thus:     1.    Objects may be linked to both spaces at once,    2.   When they are, strain arises when they move as the metrics are conflicting,    3.   Stress arises as a result of the strain. Note well that stress is not a geometric concept, and we move from geometry to physics when we consider stress. The major stress-free movement or transformation is rotation about an axis through the counter space infinity, which may explain the ubiquitous appearance and importance of rotation in most branches of physics e.g. in fluid flow. This, and all else in the pages concerned with counter space, is explained in more detail in Science Between Space and Counterspace (Reference 11). Some algebraic details are given in the subordinate algebraic page.